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It should be remembered, however, that the effects of the development of transport may be different in different regions.

maktoekonomia Innovation represents, in its core concept, an economic category. Some authors define it as a capacity of the system to recover after shock back to the previous equlibrium or move sktypt a new one or get through such a disruption and retain or regain the ability of regular functioning [Simmie, Martinp. Having applied the criterion of related entities participation begh the implementation system, they may be divided into internal and external ones. The theory of endogenous development assumes that all regional capitals natural, physical, human, social come into being in the process of accumulation.

Promising as it is, the smart specialisation seems to also have its weaknesses. There is extensive empirical evidence that proves the existing relations between transport and positive economic and social regional effects. Investing in Creative Industries.


The providers of financial resources may serve here as examples e. The classification of EU and Eastern Partnership countries regarding economic development level — a dynamic approach At present a wider range of factors is being included, such as the availability of transportation, the availability of the labor market, the impact on property values, changes in traffic flows, and the social and environmental effects human life and health, social cohesion, noise, landscape [Forkenbrock, Weisbrod ].

The objective of this study is an attempt to discuss selected aspects of creativity in relation to regional development, with particular consideration of the components underlying creativity and exerting an impact on the above mentioned development.

Similar effects can however also relate to passenger transport. The European Union specifies in the Europe development strategy ambitious goals and assumptions indicating opportunities for smart, sustainable and facilitating social cohesion growth. Transport both infrastructure and services can be an essential factor of sustain- able development of a region.


The capacity to recover after shocks is important for regional development in the two mentioned concepts. The first group is represented by the implementing entities. Some positive examples are presented in the next section of the paper.

As mentioned earlier, the system is made up of not only its components and tasks they perform, but also of mutual interaction entered into by these elements.


An additional conclusion resulting from the first two is that there is the need for a systemic approach, in which the basic tool would be the Cause — Effect Analysis. In this context, the category of innova- tion is observed as one covering both the structure of goals and the package of re- gional policy instruments. The gross value added, i. Among regional development factors responsible for stimulating the stream of benefits generated by regional natural capital the following, among others, may be listed: Supporting the creation of innovative, specialized, constructive knowledge is highly advisable for the purposes of the construction of absorption capacity, which may facilitate integration with global knowledge and result in innovative products and services development.

Creativity consists in the adequate integration of individual skills in order to concentrate them on a, so far, unexplored path and in this way establish a completely new value. In all the mentioned countries, these motivations are quite different. Their development is powered by impressive GDP growth and the rise of rich collectors and investors.

An innovator participates in this process, taking on the role of an inventor or an entity which is capable of absorbing innovation — innovation beneficiary. This definition differentiates an invention from an innovation, with the latter understood as the process of a new product, procedure or an operating pattern implementation and practical application — if they meet novelty qualities. While remaining formally and legally independent from the managing entity, they may act as co-authors of the newly appointed RIS bodies, representing the regional self- government ownership e.

The concept of smart specialization Smart specialisation is a policy concept that was elaborated in by a group of academics, namely Foray, David and Hall [Foray, David, Hall ; Foray ]. We would like to express our gratitude to the conference participants for their extensive input in the following publication.


A number of researchers [Mei, Moses ; Worthington, Higgs ; Hodgson, Vorkink ] made a comparison of Western American and European art assets and traditional financial assets. The relations between transport, business and environment are even more complex.

The Chinese buy works of art for such purposes as: Makroekonomia begg david begg makroekonomia, there are three authors makroekonomia begg this book and I had to read this book for a makreokonomia. Teoretyczne aspekty gospodarki regionalnej Ryszard Brol: Such strategies, prepared and implemented in all regions, should present the nature of rolling plans.

Regional innovation strategy implementation The research by Hiraki et al. For the purposes of this study certain selected and simplified approaches towards regional development characteristics will be presented. However, the relationship of these results with others, especially with the efficiency of transport processes, is interesting and worthy of further examination.

Tax and legal issues in China create obstacles for its further development see Table 2. Human capital, perceived as a regional development factor, is the object of research discussed in numerous scientific publications. Most purchases from makroekonomia begg sellers are protected by the Consumer Contract Regulations which give you the right to cancel the purchase within 14 days after the day makroekonomia begg receive the item.

The conference, apart from valuable papers presentation sessions, constituted a forum for exchanging opinions by scientists and economic practice representatives. The aim of the article is a comparative analysis of the definitions, goals and determinants of these three concepts and an attempt to indicate the similarities and differences among them. A shift of the basic foundation is possible as well, not raising the production continuously but aspiring to the so-called steady state economy [Rogallp.

Eco-innovation can take the following forms: Typology of European regions vs. Educational engagement of the elderly — maroekonomia experiences of selected Baltic Sea Region countries Regional competitiveness and competitive regions are defined as follows: