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This new entity, dementia praecox, would later be called schizophrenia.
Paul Bercherie (Author of Fundamentos de La Clinica)
We know from Canguilhem that it is impossible to separate the internal reading of a scientific discourse from its external reading, since this latter creates the conditions which make the referred discourse possible, and that often the multiple processes which unfold in a particular historical, social, and economic context decisively determine the phenomena within that discipline cf.
It was probably his interest in deciphering order and meaning where psychiatry tended to see disorder that led Freud to grant a higher status as paranoia in the field of psychosis in other words, to organized delusion to the detriment of schizophrenia which implied disorganization, dissociation, deterioration.
Psicopatologia e semiologia dos transtornos mentais. However, they have a particular form of existence, existing outside the general symbolization that structures the subject, outside any symbolization that would allow the subject to have them as the elements of his subjectivity. The near-ubiquity of schizophrenia in the current psychiatric clinic of psychosis, particularly in the field of mental health, forces us to use this category to address patients and clinical developments that, in some situations, would be much better elucidated by other references of the psychiatric tradition.
In paranoid schizophrenia, these phenomena are important and culminate in some delusional construction, but not to the extent of comprising systematic delirium, as they do in paranoia.
Psychosis as a category of psychiatry The notion of psychosis was the category that determined psychiatry for almost two centuries.
Pos stated intention of these modifications was to create as much consensus as possible in psychiatric classifications, regardless of which school the psychiatrist followed. If inPereira p.
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamentalv. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
It begs the question: In this way, as a kind of confluence of work in psychiatry and psychoanalysis throughout the twentieth century, a distinction was established between neurosis and psychosis, with each designating a class of pathology, a background condition, that corresponds to a specific way of being in life and in relation to the other; in Lacanian terms, a structure.
For an initial approach, we refer to Postelp. Dictionnaire taxinomique de la psychiatrie. From this point on, this new inflection virtually blocked the ability to address psychosis as a background structure or deep mental function of which these manifestations are not the only symptoms, nor the most important. Healy, ; Aguiar, Our emphasis lies in its recent transformations in terms of the description and classification of diseases and their consequences for the comprehension of the major mental illness, psychosis.
The extreme objectification of diagnostic categories has led to a proliferation of categories. The division between neurosis and psychosis is abandoned, as it implies an act of naming that extends beyond an empirical statement:. We will attempt to indicate, within both the description of diseases and psychiatric classification, how current leanings make psychosis more difficult to recognize, except when disruptive or deficit-related symptoms occur.
In this matter, the goals of psycho-social rehabilitation that, for good reasons, guide the mental health care finish to be reduced to a functional adjustment. This is what lies at the heart of the distinction between neurosis and psychosis and supports the affirmation of psychosis as a structure, as opposed to the idea of psychosis as a deficit. Services on Demand Journal.
The personality disorder category deserves a more rigorous approach, which is beyond scope of this work, but we hope to address it at some other opportunity. The characteristic disturbances in the affect and way of thinking that we have already covered are also mentioned, and are detailed in a very classical manner.
XXIV; emphasis in the original. Regarding to paranoia, as it was considered until that time, it encompassed all the psychoses vundamentos which there fundamfntos chronic delirium, whether accompanied by other changes or not, and regardless of evolution. The hallucinations, delusions, and corporal occurrences of psychosis, according to a Lacanian reading, come in place of the symbolic framing of these elements, which is impossible for the subject.
Banzatop. Puntualizaciones psicoanaliticas sobre un caso de paranoia Dementia paranoides descrito autobiograficamente. The fact that schizophrenia has encompassed almost everything that still is considered as psychosis has relegated to oblivion several important semiological references and accurate descriptions of the various clinical forms of psychoses.
To prevent this, the practical and theoretical knowledge constructed around and based upon the notion of psychosis must continue to be developed for cliinca who are interested in madness, not as a syndrome or a disorder that can be regulated, but as a phenomenon that illuminates the fundamentals of the human condition, and touches its limits and contradictions.
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At the end of the nineteenth century, the advent of neurology showed that for most mental illnesses, the previously assumed injuries did not exist, unlike in neurological diseases; the emergence of psychoanalysis explained neuroses by assigning them to certain psychological mechanisms, capable of modification through psychoanalytic treatment.
The unity of the psychoses based on the structural elements that delineate their specificity has been lost, along with the clinical rigor that required psychiatrists to pursue the presentation of symptoms clknica particularities of evolution in every patient, in an attempt to locate the moments of psychosis and the terms with which it was equated cf.
The disappearance of the psychosis category as a noun, that is, as the name of a psychiatric condition, has produced a growing difficulty in recognizing psychotic functioning, which previously was identified even when hallucinations and delusions were absent. Regarding psychoanalysis, here we refer to the situation left by Freud, who despite maintaining a theoretical and clinical interest in psychosis, considered it inaccessible for psychoanalysis.
This definition remained more or less unchanged in subsequent editions, including the recently published fifth edition DSM-5but the reference to social adaptation is less hidden in this latter edition, as we can see in two places in the quote below: For this reason, the German school was noted for producing broad categories of classification, while the French school was known for its description of conditions characterized by their differences and specific cinica.
Essentially, it asserted that the delusions and hallucinations of a psychotic are formations that arise from the same issues in face of which a so-called normal subject constitutes himself cljnica herself cf.
In this last sense, the psychotic phenomena presented by a patient, unlike being without order we allude here to the term disordershould be read as a production with its own logic and which makes a subject singular, different from others.