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Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida Psammobiidae from southern Chile. Florencia Cremonte fcremont cenpat-conicet.
A total of specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis Mytilidaeand 56 enfermedadee of clams, Gari solida Psammobiidaewere collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens 3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive enfermedqdes epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills.
In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens. Mytilus chilensis, Gari solida, histophatology, parasites, southern Chile. Un total de choritos, Mytilus chilensis Mytilidaey 56 almejas, Gari solida Psammobiidaefueron recolectados en bancos naturales y sitios de cultivo en el sur de Chile.
Mollusc culture is an important economic and social activity in Chile. The only studies about parasites and diseases on M. Disseminated neoplasia is a progressive disease that can result in death of the specimens, and at epizootic prevalences it has caused serious regional economic damage acuicultira the aquaculture industry Barber, ; Carballal et al. Moreover, other species, such as the clam Gari solida Gray, Psammobiidaefished in the same region, is starting to be cultured at a model scale Uriarte, Besides of a tetraphyllidian cestode larva reported parasitizing this clam in northern Chile Oliva,nothing is known about the health status of this fishing resource.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of the mussel M. A total of specimens of mussels, M. A total of 56 specimens of clams G. All bivalve specimens were collected and provided by artisanal fishermen and maintained in aerated aquaria until processed up to 48 h.
intees Oblique transverse sections, approximately 5 mm thick, including mantle, gills, gonad, digestive gland, nephridia and foot were taken from each specimen. Histological sections were examined under a light microscopy for the presence of parasites and pathological alterations; measurements were taken with a digital camera Leica DFC and its software Leica Applications Suite version 4.
The results of the histological examinations prevalence and mean intensity of parasites and diseases of M. Prevalence was calculated as df total number of parasitized bivalves divided by the number of examined bivalves and intensity as the number of parasites per histological section divided by the number of parasitized bivalves.
Sampling sites, number of specimens nlength moouscos mm and prevalence P and intensity [expressed as Mean MI Mean Intensity with range in parentheses] of infection of parasites and diseases of Mytilus chilensis from southern Chile.
The isopod is not included in the table because only one specimen was found. Sampling sites, number of specimens nlength in mm and prevalence P and intensity expressed as mean with range in parentheses of infection of parasites and diseases of the clam Gari solida from southern Chile. Mytilus chilensis of 3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases.
On the other hand, the commercial sized specimens were parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms, cilia tes, turbellarians and copepods.
Florencia Cremonte – Google Scholar Citations
Basophilic intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like colonies were found in the epithelium of the digestive gland and gills, without an apparent host reaction Fig. Unidentified ciliates were recorded in gills, characterized by a big macronucleus and several micronuclei, with dense ciliature Fig.
Turbellarians, similar to Paravortex Rhabdocoelaidentified by their ciliated epidermis, ocelli, and muscular pharynx, were found in the intestinal lumen, without histopathological damage to the host tissues Fig. Copepods were observed in the gills, which was heavily infiltrated by haemocytes dd around the site where the copepod was attached Fig.
A disseminated neoplasia Figs. Diseased mussels showed heavy levels of anaplastic cells infiltration on the connective tissue, particularly in the subepithelial regions. Haemocytes of healthy mussels were typical granulocytes that average 5.
One mussel with an advanced diseased stage showed empty gonad follicles Fig. Oocysts containing up to eight sporozoites similar to Nematopsis Apicomplexa were observed in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high Fig. A turbellarian similar to Paravortex Rhabdocoela Fig. This work presents the first histopathological survey of the mussel M.
Bacteria-like colonies, enermedades and disseminated neoplasia reported in the present study in the Chilean populations have been previously reported in cultured mussels from the Beagle Channel in Argentina by Cremonte et al. However, in the Beagle Channel mussel populations, a metacercaria parasitizing the foot and byssus gland was found, which was absent in the specimens here studied; conversely, turbellarians and copepods were absent in the Enfermedwdes Channel population Cremonte et al.
Turbellarians similar to Paravortex are commonly acuiculgura inhabiting the intestinal lumen of bivalves without apparent host damage Brusa et al. In only one mussel specimen, an isopod was found in the pallial cavity. Isopods identified as Edotia magellanica were reported in M. Later, the disease was reported in M. It is a progressive disease reported from about 15 bivalve species around the world and may result in mortalities of the affected populations Barber, ; Carballal et al.
In the Beagle Channel, prevalence reached epizootic levels; however, in the populations here studied, prevalences found were low. In the previous report for M. Copepods known from histopathological surveys of commercially important bivalves are mainly reported parasitizing the intestinal tract Cremonte, By other hand, Ostrincola patagonianus and another, unidentified, but closely related to Tisbe celata copepod, both inhabiting the pallial cavity of Mytilus sp.
In the present paper, an unidentified copepod was found attached to the gills of the mussels, usually in high intensities, causing severe interrs infiltration.
All the organisms found in G. In the present study, Nematopsis -like oocysts were found causing a host response in form of haemocityc infiltration when the intensity of infection was high. This parasite is commonly found in bivalves, often using them as intermediate hosts and marine arthropods as final hosts Lauckner, The populations of the bivalve species here studied, M. Special thanks to Nuria Vazquez for her help with the manuscript and Figures.
Neoplastic diseases of commercially important marine bivalves. Acuiccultura of infectious diseases and parasites of commercially exploited shellfish. Rhabdocoela on clams from the northern Patagonian coast, Argentina: Neoplasia in Mytilus chilensis cultivated in Chiloe Island.
Gonadal atrophia caused by disseminated neoplasia in Mytilus chilensis cultured in the Beagle Channel, Argentina. Occurrence and histopathological effects of Monstrilla sp. Monstrilloida and other parasites in the brown mussel Perna perna from Brazil. Myicolidae associated with intertidal bivalve mollusks on the Patagonian coast of Argentina. A bivalvod of copepods associated with bivalves in Japan, with description of two new species Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida.
Bivalvia diseases of marine animals.
ENFERMEDADES DE MOLUSCOS BIVALVOS DE INTERES EN ACUICULTURA
Introduction Bivalvia to Scaphopoda. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg, 2: The gross and microscopic anatomy of the digestive tract of the oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. Estado actual del cultivo de moluscos bivalvos en Chile.