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Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology
The maxillary antra Fig. The temporomandibular joint Conventional radiographic projections The main projections include: Note that although the condylar shape is anteromedially displaced fractured fragment altered, it is not possible to deduce whether it has been displaced of the head is arrowed. Particular features to note include: A From the side showing the direction of the fracture and separation of the fragments.
B An upper standard occlusal of the maxillary incisors, ii The different radioligy appearances of a tangential root fracture using different projections.
Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology – Eric Whaites
Superimposition on for the frontal bones conventional radiographs makes this type of frac- Cranial base ture difficult to detect, hence the need for CT if Cervical spine True lateral skull for the sides of available or tomography to determine the site Intracranial the skull, including the parietal and severity of the injury see Fig.
It is for these reasons that a minimum of two As shown in Figure C An example of a reverse Towne’s radiograph with the condylar head on one side drawn in.
Kindly supplied by Dr J. This information is sum- marized in Table The more obvious fracture sites are arrowed.
Dental Radiology and Radiography website. TMJ pain dysfunction syndrome 2. Check the following areas 1 Any separation or step Frontal sinus. Ftyan Ihsan marked it as to-read Dec 12, Trace the outline of the mandible from one condyle to the As mentioned earlier, the limitations of the other along the lower border radiographic image mean that these appearances can be influenced by: Owing to the complexity sites of the facial skeleton, there is a fundamental requirement of a sound knowledge of anatomy.
Trauma to the teeth and facial skeleton Fig. It contains air, is lined by mucoperiosteum with a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and occupies most of the body of the maxillary bone. Sphenoidal PA skull Ethmoidal True lateral skull The main radiographic features are those indi- Tomography cating malignancy and include: The main clinical indications include: In general, the larger the cavity the more radiolucent Investigation Area of antrum shown it will appear.
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Osama Fathallah marked it as to-read Mar 20, Whhaites Diagram of the positioning with the mouth open. Several different views are used to show the various fracture sites. Technique and positioning Several variations of the transcranial technique have been described underlining the investigative problem the TMJ poses and several devices are available to help the radiographer with position- ing.
A previously described transorbital view is now seldom used and is only of historical interest.
The film Main indications and the sagittal plane of the head are parallel. Note that fractures the associated muscles tend to hold the fragments through the buccal and lingual cortical plates may together, the fracture is described as favourable.
Technique and positioning Diagnostic information This projection can be taken with a dental X-ray The information provided includes: Most injuries to the middle third of the face are from the front, forcing part or parts of the facial In addition, the knowledge required ardiology the skeleton downwards and backwards along the clinician can again be summarized as follows: Readers will also find an extensive self-assessment questions and answers module to accompany each of the textbooks within the web pages.
From the investigative point of view the knowl- In addition to knowledge of the static anatomy, edge required by clinicians includes: Any into the lower joint space, using fluoroscopy to aid anterior or anteromedial displacement of the the accurate positioning of the needle.
Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology by Eric Whaites
The problem How to assess the radiographs for fractures. The needle white arrow and the contrast medium outlining the lower joint space open black arrows This includes: A For a paralleling technique periapical.
It is present at birth, but at that stage it is little more than a slit-like out- pouching of the nasal cavity. Other injuries The type of injury to the teeth These include: A Root fracture of 2J arrowedjust beyond the cervical region, with wide separation of the fragments. Curve I – Lateral wall of the antrum and the inferior surface of the body of the zygoma and zygomatic arch Curve 2 – Superior margin of the zygomatic arch and the lateral aspect of the body of the zygoma and orbital margin Curve 3 – Inner aspect of the orbital rim Curve 4 – Outer curvature of the nasal complex In both steps I and II the features to note include: This allows a broad classi- fracture fication based on site, as follows: Medial wall Allows comparison of both Antral disease sides The main radiological signs of disease related to, Upper oblique occlusal Floor or within, an antrum include: Gatot Murti added it Jul 11, Fibrous dysplasia Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia gigantiform cementoma Familial gigantiform cementoma Benign cementoblastoma Cemento-ossifying fibroma Fig.
The lateral wall contains canals or size, normal variations and related structures grooves for the nerves and blood vessels supplying the upper posterior teeth. When using radiographs postoperatively or in the Interpretation of fractures follow-up appraisal, a similar systematic approach is adopted, but particular attention should be paid To emphasize, yet again, the importance of the principles outlined in Chapter 18, before any to: The hanging drop appearance in the antrum is readily evident white arrow.