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A unified framework for clustering and quantitative analysis of white matter fiber tracts.
An introduction to diffusion tensor image analysis
A brief history of DTI and its impact on clinical inhroduction The diffusion tensor was originally proposed for use in magnetic resonance imaging MRI by Peter Basser in [ 56 ]. The imagung eigenvector may not be aligned with a fiber tract in the case of crossing fibers. The diffusion tensor was originally proposed for use in magnetic resonance imaging MRI by Peter Basser in [ 56 ]. In the left image, fibers yellow with black dotted line have traced parts of two anatomical structures by incorrectly crossing from one to the other at arrow.
A diffusion tensor imaging tractography atlas for virtual in vivo dissections. Table 1 The scale of DTI and the brain: Automated white-matter tractography using a probabilistic diffusion tensor atlas: The measured diffusion effects are averaged over a voxel three-dimensional pixelcomplicating the biophysical interpretation of the diffusion tensor [ 8384 ]. The scale of DTI and the brain: For the original paper that measured and compared several scalar measures, as well as the eigenvalues, in different regions of the human brain see [ 11 ].
Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural connectivity. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Another popular method is called FACT [ 54 ].
Tracking neuronal fiber pathways in the living human brain. Diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging DSI tractography of crossing fibers. These issues may cause false positive and false negative connections. The above system of equations can be solved via the least squares method at each voxel.
Contributor Information Lauren J.
Example false negative streamline tractography error. For a comparison of tensor calculation methods including least squares and weighted least squares in the presence of noise see [ 38 ].
However, to date there is no ihtroduction method, and it is unlikely that perfect moori is possible. Anisotropic diffusion can indicate the underlying tissue orientation Figure 1. Structure-specific statistical mapping of white matter tracts using the continuous medial representation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging DTI is a relatively new technology that is popular for imaging the white matter of the brain.
Next, the decreased signal S k is compared to the original signal S 0 to calculate the diffusion tensor D by solving the Stejskal-Tanner equation 1 [ 36 ]. The particular errors depend strongly on the tractography algorithm employed, and on the type of diffusion data used DTI versus higher-order models.
Wherever possible, pointers will be provided to more in-depth technical articles or books for further reading.
Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging – Susumu Mori – Google Books
MR imaging of intravoxel incoherent motions: Time course of the apparent diffusion coefficient ADC abnormality in human stroke. To enhance visualization of the white matter and suppress information didfusion of it, the brightness of the color is usually controlled by tensor anisotropy FA.
The streamline tract-tracing approach works by successively stepping in the direction of the principal eigenvector the direction of fastest diffusion.
These measures are interpreted as diffusivity parallel to and perpendicular to a white matter fiber tract, so they make the most sense in regions of coherently oriented axons with no fiber crossings. In addition to streamline tractography, there are many other methods [ 5051 ]. Estimation of the effective self-diffusion tensor from the NMR spin echo. A diffsuion step size of one millimeter or less smaller than a voxel is generally used for DTI data.
A review of diffusion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia. Voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data.
To measure diffusion using MRI, magnetic field gradients are employed to create an image that is sensitized to diffusion in a particular direction.
Overall, this difficulty in interpretation of DTI is introeuction to the fact that the scale at which diffusion is measured with DTI is very different from the size scale of individual axons. The eigenvectors are thus tangent to the trajectory that is produced. MR diffusion kurtosis imaging for neural tissue characterization.
The measured macroscopic diffusion anisotropy is due to microscopic tissue heterogeneity [ 6 ].
The cingulum can be seen in blue, and the posterior introeuction of the internal capsule in green. Virtual in vivo interactive dissection of white matter fasciculi in the human brain. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the following support: Atlasing location, asymmetry and inter-subject variability of white matter tracts in the human brain with MR diffusion tractography.
Principles of Neural Science.